I started this Blog after being diagnosed with Prostate Cancer in 2010. It was a way of keeping family and friends informed. It then became a campaigning tool helping to make improvements in hospitals nationally. In 2013 we moved to Johannesburg, setting up our own e-education company. Now we have moved to Bangkok, a great base to explore SE Asia. After surgery 7 years ago my PSA remains at zero, the cancer is still undetectable, and I remain thankful.
I was diagnosed with cancer, some 7 years ago, I thought I was about to say
goodbye to a life I had, in the main, really enjoyed. At the time, my friend
Charlie became a great support, sending many an encouraging mail. We joined
the Army together as 14-year-old boys on 9thMay 1967; hard to believe when I look at kids that age now! We
were bothtopof our tree when it came to athletics and a guaranteed gold medal
for our unit every time we competed. We both went on to gain Regimental and British Army colours! I guess that’s why we both look at our
bodies now, and think, what went wrong?
sad I was then, a few years back, to hear that Charlie had been diagnosed with
Motor Neuron Disease (MND), putting him now ahead of me in the river of
life, but still not far enough ahead to hear the falls! Of course, none of
us really know where we are on that river; the falls can come at a seconds
notice. I may yet overtake my friend, life’s like that, and all that Charlie
and I can do for now, is the same as anyone else - enjoy the river.
we are gone, all we really leave is our reputation and how we made others feel.
Charlie’s reputation is very much embedded in this letter he wrote to me
recently and has given permission for me to publish. At a time when you might
think he would be caving in, he’s thinking of those around him and making it as
easy for them as possible; that’s the mark of the man!
on my friend, there's many a bend yet and I'm right behind you...
Many apologies Dan – like you I got caught up in things to do –
not least building up a presentation and preparing for a Q&A session with
my local Hospice – and the local CCG (Clinical Commissioning Group). I attend
the Hospice once week – daycare – for a bit of light relief and a chat with a
few other MND affected people as well as a few cancer patients. It is quite
humorous talking about what will, in all likelihood, kill us. It is a no holds
barred discussion about what is affected, the cures, the care system and
end-of-life stuff – quite uplifting too. The hospice staffarea great
bunch of people and it was they who wanted to know more about MND and in
particular how it is affecting me. The CCGarecoming along too because they also want to know more about my
experiences with the care system and how they might improve things – they want
to give a presentation to the CCG Board of Directors so I took the opportunity
to double up on the day. Quite looking forward to the day.
I was recently rather perplexed by the host of questions the
hospice staff were asking about my mental state – they have a set of standard
questions that give them a ‘score’ indicating ‘state of mind’. I had scored a
‘zero’ in all their graphic scores – not heard of before – and they thought I
was maybe hiding some issues from them – but I have been tested many times and
always come up with zero issues. My explanation is simple:
‘…you can sit on your RS and tune into black box of bad news (BBC etc) and rant
at the perceived injustices in the world – OR – take a hold of the ‘black dog’
and screw it up tight and stuff it in the waste bin – and get on with living my
life and not someone else’s…’
Seem to have done the trick. The neurologist suggested that it was
OK to get angry at the way this disease gets to you – but I replied that ‘I
could’ but it doesn’t help Mags – the main carer – to see me getting angry with
myself or feeling sorry for myself. It is a fine line between sharing and
caring. Itreadthat line with great care – but err on the side ofhumourand
positivity. I think it helps her a great deal to know that I am OK with MND and
whatever it will bring.
About that ‘ hereafter’ stuff: science would have us believe that
matter (in whatever shape orfrom)
remains constant – just gets changed – so I can see how those Roman soldiers are
still ‘with us’. But thinking about that – if we are just a collection of atoms
arranged in a particular way for a period of time then why not believe in
‘re-incarnation’ of atoms – so with that logic we must all have something of
the past within us – and something of the universe too – star child springs to
mind (Arthur C Clarke). What if we could find those ‘particular atoms’ and
recreate them – hey – Frankenstein!.
Thanks for thinking about stopping or reversing MND – one day I’m
sure – but just maybe not today – but I live in hope.
I still don’t hear the crash of the waterfall – but like you – I
know it’s there.
Of course, while we are all busy thinking of cancer, which is relatively long-term, we can find ourselves faced with sudden emergencies that can end life even sooner, if not dealt with immediately. Would you know what to do if the person in front of you collapsed at your feet? I recently organised a 1st Aid and CPR training course kindly provided by BNH Hospital in Bangkok. Everyone left feeling far more confident that they now had some valuable skills. Ask at your local hospital to see if you can do the same.
Six injections of OncBioMune Pharmaceuticals‘ prostate cancer vaccine ProscaVax stopped the progression of the disease in 80 percent of patients in a Phase 1 clinical trial, the company announced.
The results applied to patients who had been treated for 19 weeks. All the participants had cancer that had returned after other treatment regimens.
“All the data to date is consistent with previous study data showing ProscaVax elicits immune responses to fight tumor growth in prostate cancer,” Dr. Jonathan Head, chief executive officer of OncBioMune, said in a press release. “We are impressed that 80 percent of the patients treated with ProscaVax demonstrated stable disease” — that is, no progression.
ProscaVax immunizes patients against the protein prostate specific antigen, or PSA, high levels of which are associated with cancer. The vaccine includes PSA plus two immune system activators, interleukin-2, or IL-2, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or GM-CSF. It is designed to boost the immune response against prostate cancer cells.
The ongoing Phase 1 trial (NCT02058680) is evaluating the vaccine’s effectiveness against recurrent prostate cancer in patients whose PSA levels had increased for more than six months before the trial started. The study is also assessing the vaccine’s safety.
In the Phase 1a part of the trial, the 20 participants received vaccine shots at weeks 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, and 15.
At 19 weeks, in the first patient follow-up, researchers discovered that the cancer of 16 of the 19 patients had failed to progress. Among the four patients whose disease progressed, three had higher PSA levels. Imaging indicated that the cancer of the other had spread to the brain.
Researchers also found the vaccine to be safe. They observed no serious adverse events or dose-limiting adverse events in the 30 days after vaccination began.
OncBioMune is conducting additional analysis to determine whether the vaccine can increase patients’ immune response against PSA and decrease PSA doubling times — a measure of cancer progression.
“We look forward to continuing to follow the patients in this study to collect additional data and also to conducting a larger study to further validate the therapeutic benefit of our vaccine platform technology,” Head said.
The Phase 1b part of the trial will involve patients receiving booster shots at weeks 27, 35, and 43, along with IL-2 injections at weeks 23, 31, and 39.
The Phase 1 trial is being conducted at the University of California San Diego Medical School, with support from the U.S. Navy Cancer Vaccine Program.
Do you know how many men have died while deciding whether or not to have a PSA test? No, I don't either, but I'd be dead now if I'd listened to the 'Prostate Press'.
Have a PSA test today! That's the easy bit! They take some blood and test it for PSA. Then, and this is the part where almost everyone goes wrong.... Your doctor/nurse says to you with a smile, "Yes, that's fine, everything's OK" and you walk away thinking, everything's OK! But is it? They're professionals, aren't they? They care about me, don't they? If your result is between 0 and 4 and the medical professionals say you are within limits, and thus OK... No, no, no, no and NO! All my tests were within these limits, but my doctor spotted that there had been a doubling of PSA in about 18 months, which is a warning sign that all is not well. It doesn't mean you have cancer, but it OFTEN does!
If you're a man over 50 and you do not know your actual PSA test number (not just..." the doctor said it was ok") and have not written that down so you can compare it to the previous year, next year, then you are dicing with death!
Today, again, I was lucky! My 16th PSA test after surgery 7 years ago, and still, all clear of cancer.
For 10 years after surgery, it's like drawing a ticket every 6 months, knowing that around 30% of us will be unlucky. But 70% will be lucky, and I'm still in that group, so all I have to do is go again in May 2018, and every 6 months after that. If you make it to 10 years, the cancer rarely returns.
BUT, what if I had been in the 30% this time; the unlucky ones? How bad is it to be in that group and what should they expect now?
What is the most frightening thing about cancer? For many, it’s the chance the cancer might return after surgery. With most common cancers—colon, breast, brain, melanoma, or lung, for example—these recurrences are almost universally fatal. Prostate cancer, however, is different. You might find it hard to believe, but men with relapsed disease are more likely to die from old age than from prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Is Different
Why is prostate cancer relapse so different? Several reasons. First, it grows and spreads far more slowly than other types of cancer. Second, medications that inactivate testosterone (hormonal blockade) are shockingly effective. Men go into remission for an average of 10 years! But what makes prostate cancer most unique is a particular type of protein produced in the prostate gland called prostate specific antigen, otherwise known as PSA.
PSA Is Amazing
Even though measuring the amount of PSA in one’s blood to screen for cancer has been seriously questioned, PSA is the gold standard for detecting relapsed disease. In fact, other types of cancer have nothing that even approaches the accuracy of PSA. PSA detects microscopic cancer. Unfortunately, other cancers can only be detected with scans, after the recurrent tumors become large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
For tumors to be visualized on a scan, they must be over a half-inch in diameter and contain at least one billion cancer cells. The PSA blood test, on the other hand, detects recurrences with as few as 100,000 cells.
PSA Doubling Time Is More Accurate Than Gleason Score
Detecting recurrence with PSA at the earliest possible stage creates an opportunity to determine the seriousness of the relapse.
With repeated, sequential testing of PSA—say with monthly blood draws—the rate of PSA increase can be accurately determined. How quickly the PSA doubles reveals the grade of relapse. This information is very important because low-grade relapses are treated very differently than high-grade relapses. Most people are familiar with the Gleason grading system, the most popular methodology for cancer grading in newly diagnosed men, that is, prior to relapse. With the Gleason system, the cancer cells are graded by a special doctor called a pathologist. The pathologist views the biopsyspecimen under a microscope and assigns a grade to the cancer. The Gleason system is the most powerful prognostic indicator for grading newly-diagnosed prostate cancer and has a very important role in determining optimal treatment for newly diagnosed men. However, in relapsed prostate cancer, the PSA doubling time easily supersedes the accuracy of the Gleason score. Knowledge of the cancer’s growth rate is the most accurate way to grade the cancer’s aggressiveness, and, luckily, the PSA determines this with unparalleled exactitude.
Once the PSA doubling time reveals the severity of the relapse, a treatment strategy is implemented.
Treatment varies drastically depending on the grade of relapse, so the optimal type of treatments for each grade of relapse is discussed below.
For descriptive purposes, three different grades of relapses can be described: low, intermediate, and high. Knowing the grade of relapse is the basis for treatment selection. Some relapses, for example, are so low-grade that no treatment at all will be required. This occurs when PSA requires more than a year to double. When the doubling time is this slow, the best approach is to withhold treatment and continue monitoring the PSA every three to six months.
Many of these patients remain off treatment indefinitely.
When men have PSA doubling times that are somewhat brisker, say in the six to 12-month range, they will usually be candidates for some form of therapy. Historically, treatment has consisted of a blind shot of radiation to the area of the body where the prostate was located prior to its removal. The area that is targeted is called the prostate fossa. Sometimes radiation used in this fashion will be curative. Studies show that cure rates are best if the radiation is initiated before the PSA rises above 0.5. Like so many types of cancer therapy, the earlier treatment is started the better it works.
If the radiation is unsuccessful, hormonal therapy is the next line of defense. The most common approach is to select an agent from a long list of active hormonal agents of more or less equal effectiveness—Lupron, Trelstar, Eligard, Firmagon, or Zoladex. These injectable medications are typically implemented as a backup if the radiation fails to control the rising PSA. Prostate cancer cells require testosterone to survive, and these medications work by lowering testosterone. Depriving the cancer cells of testosterone causes them to die. Hormonal blockade induces a sustained anticancer effect that is maintained for an average of 10 years, assuming that treatment is initiated early, that is, before the onset of bone metastases. The duration of disease control is much shorter if prostate cancer is allowed to progress into the bones before treatment is started.
To reduce the side effects from having low testosterone, periodic treatment holidays are often recommended. The usual approach is to administer Lupron for six to eight months and then take a holiday. Usually the PSA drops to less than 0.1 within six months of starting therapy. After the medication is stopped and its effects wear off, testosterone slowly recovers and the PSA begins to rise. A second cycle of Lupron is started when the PSA rises to a prespecified threshold, say between three and six. Studies prove that this intermittent approach effectively controls the cancer just as well as if the Lupron is given continuously.
A Milder Type of Hormone Therapy
Sometimes milder, oral forms of hormone therapy such as Casodex (bicalutamide), with or without Avodart (dutesteride), can be substituted for Lupron to reduce side effects. This type of approach might be preferred, for example, in patients who are older or frailer. The most common side effects associated with the standard injectable types of hormonal therapy—fatigue, weakness, and weight gain—tend to be less severe. However, there is one side effect that is more common with Casodex—breast growth. This problem, however, can be counteracted with an estrogen blocking pill called Femara. Alternatively, a moderate dose of radiation administered to the breast area before Casodex is initiated usually prevents breast enlargement.
Treating a High-Grade Relapse
Men with relapsing prostate cancer whose PSA doubling time is less than six months face a more daunting situation. If the disease is not kept in check with effective therapy, the cancer is likely to spread quickly and become life-threatening. Here, the most prudent therapeutic approach is to adopt an aggressive plan that relies on a combination of treatments given simultaneously, aka a multi-modality approach. The remainder of this article will address the treatment of high-grade relapses.
The first step is to use optimal scanning technology to determine where in the body the cancer is located. Presently, the best available lymph node scans (lymph nodes are usually the first site of metastases) are C11 Acetate or C11 Choline PET scans. Unfortunately, in the United States these scans are only available at Phoenix Molecular or at the Mayo Clinic. Recently, a new type of PET scan called Axumin has become more widely available. Studies comparing the relative accuracy of Axumin with C11 PET are in process. Another, newer type of PET scan called Gallium68 PSMA is now entering into clinical trials at various centers around the US.
In addition to lymph nodes, advancing prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. The importance of accurate scans to detect early disease cannot be overemphasized. Recently, bone scan technology has been greatly improved with the use of new F18PET technology. Whenever possible, F18 PET bone scans should be used rather than the older Technisium99 methodology. PET scans for prostate cancer are a revolutionary new development, enabling doctors to apply potentially curative radiation in a far more intelligent manner.
Radiation Plus Lupron Plus Casodex
Once the extent of disease has been determined by accurate scanning, assuming the number of metastases is relatively limited, (say no more than five), the first step it to initiate treatment with Lupron plus Casodex with the plan of continuing it for at least a year. Generally, a couple of months after starting Lupron, radiation is administered to the known metastatic sites (the ones that were detected by scanning) along with further “blind” radiation treatment to the prostate fossa and to the “normal” pelvic lymph nodes. These areas of the body are treated because they are the most common location for microscopic disease, and even the modern PET scans may fail to detect cancer here.
Microscopic Disease Outside the Radiation Field
Studies clearly show that when radiation is directed at known sites of disease, sterilization of the cancer at those sites is usually achieved. So, treatment failures are usually related to small amounts of microscopic disease in other parts of the body that were undetected, despite the best available scanning technology. Therefore, when dealing with these more dangerous types of prostate cancer that have very fast doubling times, using an aggressive strategy that employs systemic medications that have anticancer activity throughout the entire body makes a whole lot of sense. As was already noted above, anticancer therapy is most effective when starting treatment at an earlier stage, while the disease is still microscopic.
Multiple Medications to Eradicate Microscopic Disease
Since Lupron and Casodex can be such integral players in the treatment game, some might wonder if other types of effective anticancer therapies exist. When the question is framed this way, two medications immediately come to mind, Zytiga and Xtandi. These powerful agents have demonstrated anticancer efficacy even when treating men whose cancer has developed resistance to Lupron! Considering that they are convenient oral agents with a manageable side effect profile, it is logical to consider substituting Zytiga or Xtandi for Casodex.
What About Chemotherapy?
In addition to using a combination of medications, as was the approach outlined in the previous paragraph, reports also indicate that the addition of chemotherapy with a medication called Taxotere has the potential to further improve survival. While such conclusions are preliminary, studies evaluating the combination of Taxotere with Xtandi or Zytiga indicate that this approach may be feasible.
Men whose prostate cancer recurs after surgery cannot adopt a one-size-fits-all treatment approach. When the PSA doubling time is very slow, men can be safely watched. When the PSA doubling time is somewhat faster, radiation, Lupron, or both can effectively forestall disease progression for over a decade. Men with aggressive relapses signaled by a very fast PSA doubling time should strongly consider the prompt initiation of multiple therapies in combination.
This article gives food for thought on the PSA test, a test that had my doctor ignored the results of, I would now certainly have been dead. So for me, PSA remains king, but never forget this:
If your result is between 0 and 4 the medical profession say you are within limits, and thus safe. No, no, no, no and NO! All my tests were within this limit, but my doctor spotted that there had been a doubling in about 18 months, which is a warning sign that all is not well. It doesn't mean you have cancer, but it OFTEN does!
If you are a man over 50 and you do not know your actual PSA test number (not just..." the doctor said it was ok") and have not written it down so you can compare it to the previous year, then you are dicing with death!
We are still waiting for a test that can—with complete accuracy—distinguish between men who have prostate cancer and those who are cancer-free. If prostate cancer is diagnosed, the test should also determine whether it’s an aggressive form that requires prompt treatment or a slow-growing tumor that may only need close monitoring.
A number of companies have introduced tests that could take us closer to that goal, but there’s still much to be learned about them and their proper role in the management of prostate cancer. Unfortunately, published studies are limited, and so far none of the tests has a long-term track record in the real world, where doctors screen, counsel, and treat patients.
Once a particular test has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is available, it can be marketed without proof of benefit. Furthermore, unsubstantiated claims abound for many tests. For now, all of these tests are intended to augment—not replace—a doctor’s clinical judgment along with the existing proven tests currently used to screen for and monitor prostate cancer.
Time will tell if any of these new tests add information that will significantly affect treatment decisions. Here’s an overview of the latest prostate cancer tests—and the questions we hope they can answer. All of the tests are available in the U.S. unless otherwise indicated.
Tests to indicate the need for a prostate biopsy
An elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level can indicate that a man has prostate cancer; however, findings may also be elevated in men with less serious conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Yet most men with elevated PSA levels end up having an anxiety-provoking biopsy to rule out cancer. Two new tests show great promise in identifying appropriate biopsy candidates with greater accuracy:
• The Prostate Health Index. Commonly known as the phi test, measures blood levels of PSA, free PSA, and a precursor (or early form) of PSA, known as pro-PSA or p2PSA. Research suggests that pro-PSA levels are a better indicator of prostate cancer than total or free PSA levels and that men with elevated pro-PSA levels are at high risk for having an aggressive form of prostate cancer. Using a mathematical equation, the phi test combines all three variants to better determine whether prostate cancer is present.
The test is indicated for use in men age 50 and older whose digital rectal exam showed no signs of cancer and who have a total PSA value between 4 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL—a gray zone that could indicate prostate cancer or a less serious condition such as BPH. Like the other tests described herein, the phi test doesn’t deliver a definitive answer about what action to take—in this case, whether or not to have a biopsy.
Instead, the phi test’s results, which are scored from 0 to 55 and above, reflect the probability that a biopsy will detect cancer. For example, a phi test score below 27 is associated with a 9.8 percent probability that prostate cancer is present, while a score of 55 or more suggests a likelihood of greater than 50 percent. As with all of the tests, phi test results must be considered in light of a man’s other risk factors.
• 4Kscore. This blood test (currently available in Europe and Mexico) measures levels of three PSA variants (total PSA, free PSA, and intact PSA), plus an enzyme called human kallikrein 2 (hK2), which is elevated in men with prostate cancer. Some scientists believe hK2 may promote the growth and spread of prostate cancer. The 4Kscore also uses a mathematical algorithm to calculate the risk of prostate cancer in a man with an elevated PSA level.
Tests to rule out a repeat biopsy
Some prostate biopsies produce inconclusive results. Others may be negative even in men with elevated PSA or other high-risk features. Typically, this means the procedure must be repeated even though only 10 to 36 percent of second biopsies detect cancer. The following tests can be used to help determine the need for a repeat biopsy.
• Progensa. This urine test detects the presence of a gene called prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3). This gene is overexpressed (or overactive) in 95 percent of men with prostate cancer, but not in men who have healthy prostates or BPH. Results are ranked from less than 5 to greater than 100, with a score of less than 25 indicating a decreased likelihood of a positive biopsy. Progensa is approved for use in men age 50 and older who have had one or more negative biopsies, but who a doctor nonetheless suspects may have prostate cancer.
• ConfirmMDx. Whether a particular gene is turned “off” or “on” can be determined by the presence or absence of specific chemical tags or methyl groups—methylation—of DNA, the building blocks of genes. When this process of DNA methylation turns off the activity of tumor suppressor genes, cancer may develop. Based on technology developed at Johns Hopkins and other institutions, ConfirmMDx analyzes the DNA methylation status of a man’s biopsied prostate tissue. Test results indicate that the biopsy specimen is positive or negative for methylation. A positive finding, which is mapped on a diagram of the prostate, suggests the need for a repeat biopsy.
• Prostate Core Mitomic Test. This test analyzes a man’s biopsied prostate tissue, looking for damage to mitochrondrial DNA (mtDNA) caused by cellular changes associated with prostate cancer development. A negative result suggests that the man is at low risk of undiagnosed prostate cancer and that a repeat biopsy can be deferred.
Tests to determine the need for prostate cancer treatment
Many men with positive biopsies have low-risk tumors that won’t spread to other organs and become deadly. For some of these men, active surveillance may be a reasonable alternative to immediate treatment, but standard diagnostic tools are imperfect at distinguishing between indolent and aggressive tumors. Results from the following tests, when combined with a Gleason score and other clinical information, are intended to help provide reassurance about the decision to forgo or institute immediate treatment.
• Prolaris. This test uses a sample of tumor tissue removed during a biopsy and measures how rapidly cells are dividing as a way to gauge whether the tumor is more or less likely to be deadly. Prolaris scores range from -1.3 to +4.7 and are stratified by risk, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of dying from prostate cancer.
•ProstaVysion. For this test, biopsied tissue is analyzed for the presence of two genetic biomarkers for prostate cancer. One biomarker, known as TMPRSS2:ERG, is a fusion of two genes and is associated with the presence of prostate cancer. The other biomarker, PTEN, is a “suppressor” gene that normally helps keep certain forms of cancer in check and is missing in 60 percent of men with metastatic prostate cancer. By examining those two markers, the test provides a molecular analysis of prostate cancer aggressiveness and the patient’s long-term prognosis.
• Oncotype DX. This test examines the interactions between 17 genes in a biopsy sample to predict whether a tumor is likely to be aggressive. The result, the Genomic Prostate Score, ranges from 0 to 100; a low score suggests that the tumor is less likely to grow and spread and aggressive treatment may not be necessary. Conversely, a higher score suggests a poorer prognosis and a greater need for immediate treatment.
Tests to determine the need for treatment after prostate surgery
Some men who have had a radical prostatectomy are at risk for recurrence and would benefit from additional therapies, such as radiation or hormone therapy, but identifying them is a challenge. At least one of the tests discussed above, Prolaris, as well as the tests below, may be able to help with that challenge.
•NADiA ProsVue. This blood test measures the rate of tiny changes in PSA levels over time, which can suggest that a man is at risk for recurrence. Patients are categorized as at reduced risk, which indicates that a man is at a lower risk for clinical (not biochemical) cancer recurrence for several years following his prostatectomy, or not at reduced risk.
•Decipher. This test, which is not yet available in the U.S., analyzes tissue from the prostate tumor to look for 22 genes linked to prostate cancer metastasis. The results, which are presented as a percentage score, indicate whether a man is at high or low risk for metastases and, therefore, whether further treatment should be considered.
A bone marrow protein that normally works to reduce inflammation after infection was found to also send signals to prostate cancer cells to promote their spread and growth outside of the prostate, a new study shows. The findings could provide the missing link as to why prostate cancer cells migrate to bones and may lead to new therapies that stop the process.
Inflammation is linked to poor prognosis in cancer. Cytokines, which are proteins secreted by cells as part of the normal immune response, are associated with the inflammatory process. For example, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) influences the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells.
Patients with progressive prostate cancer have elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), and previous studies have shown that IL-4 can promote the growth and proliferation of certain cancer cells in vitro. This prompted the researchers to investigate the effect of IL-4 on prostate cancer cells isolated from patients.
After six days of growth in the presence of IL-4, the team found that the ability of malignant prostate cancer cells to form colonies, which is a measure of cell survival and proliferation, was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. But the cytokine did not influence the migration or invasive potential of prostate cancer cells.
The researchers then set out to identify the mechanism mediating IL-4’s effect on prostate cancer cells. They found that the signaling pathway is mediated by the STAT6 protein, which is known to be involved in metastasis.
The findings suggest that prostate cancer cells that have spread from the prostate into circulation, dock in the bones through the IL-4/STAT6 signaling and multiply to form a new tumor.
Norman Maitland, a professor at the University of York’s Department of Biology in the U.K., and one of the study’s authors, compares the process to that of a space rocket.
“We have always known that the two places where prostate cancer spreads are the bones and lymph nodes, but we have not fully understood why these two locations are preferred,” he explained in a press release. “If we imagine the prostate cancer cell as a floating ‘space rocket’ and the only way for it to perform its mission is to ‘dock’ with another ‘space vehicle’, we start to get a picture of what happens when a cancer cell moves around the body in search of a new home.
“Without this docking station, the ‘ship’, or cell, will just float around, not causing any further harm. The receptors on the ‘docking station’, or the protein in bone, act like a magnet for the receptors on the stem cells of the cancer and once it is ‘docked’, getting rid of the cancer becomes much harder,” he added.
The identification of this pathway offers a potential therapeutic opportunity by blocking STAT6 signaling. By using a STAT6 inhibitor that already has been tested in asthma, the team was able to disrupt the metastatic process.
“Clinical trials are some way off, but this is a positive and exciting step forward in tackling this disease and reducing the number of deaths,” Maitland said.
It doesn’t interest me what you do for a living. I want to know what you ache for – and if you dare to dream of meeting your heart’s longing. It doesn’t interest me how old you are. I want to know if you will risk looking like a fool – for love – for your dreams – for the adventure of being alive.
The ENFP personality is a true free spirit. They are often the life of the party, but unlike Explorers, they are less interested in the sheer excitement and pleasure of the moment than they are in enjoying the social and emotional connections they make with others. Charming, independent, energetic and compassionate, the 7% of the population that they comprise can certainly be felt in any crowd
You Can Change the World With Just an Idea
More than just sociable people-pleasers though, ENFPs, like all their Diplomat cousins, are shaped by their Intuitive (N) quality, allowing them to read between the lines with curiosity and energy. They tend to see life as a big, complex puzzle where everything is connected – but unlike Analysts, who tend to see that puzzle as a series of systemic machinations, ENFPs see it through a prism of emotion, compassion and mysticism, and are always looking for a deeper meaning.
ENFPs are fiercely independent and much more than stability and security, they crave creativity and freedom.
Many other types are likely to find these qualities irresistible, and if they’ve found a cause that sparks their imagination, ENFPs will bring an energy that oftentimes thrusts them into the spotlight, held up by their peers as a leader and a guru – but this isn’t always where independence-loving ENFPs want to be. Worse still if they find themselves beset by the administrative tasks and routine maintenance that can accompany a leadership position. ENFPs’ self-esteem is dependent on their ability to come up with original solutions, and they need to know that they have the freedom to be innovative – they can quickly lose patience or become dejected if they get trapped in a boring role.
Don’t Lose That ’Little Spark of Madness’
Luckily, ENFPs know how to relax, and they are perfectly capable of switching from a passionate, driven idealist in the workplace to that imaginative and enthusiastic free spirit on the dance floor, often with a suddenness that can surprise even their closest friends. Being in the mix also gives them a chance to connect emotionally with others, giving them cherished insight into what motivates their friends and colleagues. They believe that everyone should take the time to recognize and express their feelings, and their empathy and sociability make that a natural conversation topic.
The ENFP personality type needs to be careful, however – if they rely too much on their intuition, assume or anticipate too much about a friend’s motivations, they can misread the signals and frustrate plans that a more straightforward approach would have made simple. This kind of social stress is the bugbear that keeps harmony-focused Diplomats awake at night. ENFPs are very emotional and sensitive, and when they step on someone’s toes, they both feel it.
ENFPs will spend a lot of time exploring social relationships, feelings and ideas before they find something that really rings true. But when they finally do find their place in the world, their imagination, empathy and courage are likely to produce incredible results.